IdeaChain is designed to improve reading (and listening) comprehension.
pixel.gif (807 bytes)
IdeaChain is a product of MindPrime, Inc.

Why Individuals Who Read Well Cannot Understand and Remember

How IdeaChain Works to Improve Reading Comprehension

What IdeaChain Can Do For You or Your Family

Frequently Asked Questions about IdeaChain and Reading Comprehension


Register for MindPrime's Free Reading Comprehension Newsletter

School Use of IdeaChain for Reading Comprehension Improvement

Comprehension as It Relates to:
Teachers and Educational Professionals





Research Papers, Articles and Books About Reading Comprehension and Mental Imaging

About MindPrime

Customer Support

Price - US, Canada, International




Articles Relating to Reading Comprehension and Mental Imagery

Anderson, R.C., Goetz, E.T., Pichert, J.W., & Halff, H.M. 1977. Two faces of the conceptual peg hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 3, 142-149.

Anderson, R.C., & Kulhavy, R.W. 1972. Imagery and prose learning. Joural of Educational Psychology, 63, 242-243.

Arlin, nM., Scott, M., & Webster, J. 1978-1979. The effects of pictures on rate of learning sight words: A critique of the focal attention hypothesis. Reading Research Quarterly, 14, 645-658.

Bartlett, F.C. 1995. Remembering. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. (Original work published in 1932)

Clark, J.M., & Paivio, A. 1991. Dual coding theory and education. Educational Psychology Review, 3, 149-210.

Cramer, E.H. 1980. Mental imagery, reading attitude, and comprehension. Reading Improvement, 17, 135-139.

Denis, M. 1982. Imaging while reading text: A study of individual differences. Memory & Cognition, 10, 540-545.

Denis, M. 1984. Imagery and prose: A critical review of research on adults and children. Text, 4, 381-401.

Filippatou, D., & Pumfrey, P.D. 1996. Pictures, titles, reading accuracy, and reading comprehension: A research review (1973-1995). Educational Research, 38, 259-291.

Gambrell, L.B. 1982. Induced mental imagery and the text prediction performance of first and third graders. In J.A. Niles & L.A. Harris (Eds.), New inquiries in reading research and instruction (pp. 131-135). Thirty-first Yearbook of the National Reading Conference. Rochester, NY: National Reading Conference.

Gambrell, L.B., & Bales, R.J. 1986. Mental imagery and the comprehension-monitoring performance of fourth- and fifth-grade poor readers. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 454-464.

Gambrell, L.B., & Jawitz, P.B. 1993. Mental imagery, text illustration, and children's story comprehension and recall. Reading Research Quarterly, 28, 264-276.

Giesen, C., & Peeck, J. 1984. Effects of imagery instruction on reading and retaining a literary text. Journal of Mental Imagery, 8, 79-90.

Goetz, E.T., & Sadoski, M. 1996. Imaginative processes in literary comprehension. In R.J. Kreuz & M.S. MacNealy (Eds.), Empirical approaches to literature and aesthetics (pp. 221-240). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Goetz, E.T., Sadoski, M., & Olivarez, A., Jr. 1991. Getting a reading on reader response: Relationships between imagery, affect, and importance ratings, recall and imagery reports. Reading Psychology, 12, 13-26.

Huttenlocher, J.. 1968. Constructing spatial images: A strategy in reasoning. Psychology Review, 75, 550-560.

Intons-Peterson, M.J. 1993. Imagery's role in creativity and discovery. In B. Roskos-Ewoldsen, M.J. Intons-Peterson, & R.E. Anderson, (Eds.), Imagery, creativity and discovery: A cognitive perspective (pp. 1-37). New York: North-Holland

Jorm, A.F. 1977. Effect of word imagery on reading performance as a function of reader ability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 46-54.

Kaufmann, G. 1990. Imagery effects in problem solving. In P.J. Hampson, D.F. Marks, & J.T.E. Richardson (Eds.), Imagery: Current developments (pp. 169-196). London: Routledge.

Kaufmann, G., & Helstrup, T. 1985. Mental imagery and problem solving: Implications for the educational process. In A.A. Sheikh & K.S. Sheikh (Eds.), Imagery in education: Imagery in the educational process (pp. 113-144). Farmingdale, NY: Baywood.

Kolker, B., & Terwilliger, P.N. 1986. Visual imagery of text and children's processing. Reading Psychology, 7, 267-277.

Kosslyn, S.M. 1980. Image and mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Kosslyn, S.M. 1994. Image and brain: A resolution of the imagery debate. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Kulhavy, R.W., & Swenson, I. 1975. Imagery instructions and the comprehension of text. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 45, 47-51.

Levie, W.H., & Lentz, R. 1982. Effects of text illustrations: A review of research. Educational Communication & Technology, 30, 195-232.

Levin, J.R. 1973. Inducing comprehension in poor readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 65, 19-24.

Levin, J.R., & Divine-Hawkins, P. 1974. Visual imagery as a prose learning process. Journal of Reading Behavior, 6, 23-30.

Marks, D.E. 1977. Imagery and consciousness. Journal of Mental Imagery, 2, 275-290.

McCallum, R.D., & Moore, S. 1999. Not all imagery is created equal: The role of imagery in the comprehension of main ideas in exposition. Reading Psychology, 20, 21-60.

Morrow, L.M. 1985. Retelling stories: A strategy for improving young children's comprehension, concept of story structure, and oral language complexity. Elementary School Journal, 85, 647-661.

Oakhill, J., & Patel, S. 1991. Can imagery training help children who have comprehension problems? Journal of Research in Reading, 14, 106-115.

Paivio, A. 1969. Mental imagery in associative learning and memory. Psychology Review, 76, 241-263.

Paivio, A. 1971. Imagery and verbal processes. new York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. (Reprinted 1979, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates).

Paivio, A. 1991a. Images in mind: The evolution of a theory. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Paivio, A. 1996. Imagery and memory. In M.S. Gazzaniga (Ed.), The cognitive neurosciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Pressley, M. 1977. Imagery and children's learning: Putting the picture in developmental perspective. Review of Educational Research, 47, 585-622.

Pressley, M. 1976. Mental imagery helps eight-year-olds remember what they read. Journal of Educational Psychology, 68, 355-359.

Pressley, M., Johnson, C.J., Symons, S., McGoldrick, J.A., & Kurita, J.A. 1989. Strategies that improve children's memory and comprehension of text. Elementary School Journal, 90.

Rasinski, T.V. 1985. Picture this: Using imagery as a reading comprehension strategy. Reading Horizons, 25, 280-288.

Rodriguez, M., & Sadoski, M. 2000. Effects of rote, context, keyword, and context/keyword methods on retention of vocabulary in EFL classrooms. Language Learning, 50, 385-412.

Sadock, J.M. 1993. Figurative speech and linguistics. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and thought (2nd ed., pp. 58-70). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Sadoski, M. 1983. An exploratory study of the relationships between reported imagery and the comprehension and recall of a story. Reading Research Quarterly, 19, 110-123.

Sadoski, M. 1985. The natural use of imagery in story comprehension and recall: Replication and extension. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 658-667.

Sadoski, M., 1999a. Comprehending comprehension [Essay review of the book Comprehension: A paradigm for cognition] Reading Research Quarterly, 34, 493-500.

Sadoski, M. 1999b. Mental imagery in reading: A sampler of some significant studies. Reading Online [electonic journal of the International Reading Association]. Available:]

Sadoski, M., Goetz, E.T., & Fritz, J.B. 1993b. Impact of concreteness on comprehensibility, interest, and memory for text: Implications for dual coding theory and text design. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 291-304.

Sadoski, M., Goetz, E., & Kangiser, S. 1988. Imagination in story response: Relationships between imagery, affect, and structural importance. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 320-336.

Sadoski, M., Goetz, E.T., Olivarez, A., Lee, S., & Roberts, N.M. 1990. Imagination in story reading: The role of imagery, verbal recall, story analysis, and processing levels. Journal of Reading Behavior, 22, 55-70.

Sadoski, M., & Paivio, A. 1994. A dual coding view of imagery and verbal processes in reading comprehension. In R.B. Ruddell, M.R. Ruddell, & H. Singer (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (4th ed., pp. 582-601). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Sadoski, M., & Paivio, A. 2001. Imagery and text. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Sadoski, M., Paivio, A., & Goetz, E.T. 1991. Commentary: A critique of schema theory in reading and a dual coding alternative. Reading Research Quarterly, 26, 463-484.

Steingart, S.K., & Glock, M.D. 1979. Imagery and the recall of connected discourse. Reading Research Quarterly, 15, 66-83.

Suzuki, N.S. 1985. Imagery research with children: Implications for education. In A.A. Sheikh & K.S. Sheikh (Eds.), Imagery in education: Imagery in the educational process (pp. 179-198). Farmingdale, NY: Baywood

Free Newsletter  • Testimonials    About MindPrime    Order Desk    Contact Us     Customer Support    Home

Copyright 1999-2007, MindPrime Inc.
800-460-8484      4547 Baylor Camp Road, Crawford, Texas 76638    
MindPrime and IdeaChain are registered trademarks of MindPrime, Inc.

Reading comprehension improvement . . . in as little as three months!